Disavantaged social background of violent people
Further, the ways students described academic aspects of school often contrasted from those they described in relation to social aspects of school. In short really, the difficult part would be fitting in socially. Fitting in socially was one of the main troubles I had. While David and other individuals appeared to cope with their social difficulties by downplaying the importance of socialising at school and focusing more on the educational aspects of school, others described school disaffection, periods of not engaging at school, and even temporarily withdrawing from school as a result of being isolated, excluded, bullied or stigmatised from peer groups at their schools.
The social difficulties students like Lisa described as a result of their perceived commitment to learning were not uncommon among participants, and have been discussed in previous studies e. This may reflect the notion that success, including high academic attainment, is socially cultivated and not seen as achievement by certain groups or cultures, but rather the opposite Gayles, The ways that students like Rachael describe trying to hide differences to avoid being distinguished from others indicates how class is not an entirely invisible form of identity to children.
However, students also discussed perceiving invisible class differences in the emotional and social difficulties they faced compared to others. I was like why is that even a problem? They were generally happier as well. In turn, these findings could also be associated with relative deprivation, and hence the feelings that may arise when individuals compare their SES based on income, consumption or other indicators of perceived economic welfare to that or their richer counterparts Chen, Kate's account provides one such example. Here she describes wanting to go to grammar school after doing well in exams.
Four other students had similar experiences and did not attend grammar schools as a result.
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Further, though most students conveyed an awareness of being perceived as a member of a group that would not fit in, or do well, many of them discussed being strongly motivated to prove people wrong and succeed. Like Lisa, many students describe feeling misjudged in terms of their efforts and academic potential. However, although low expectations were a source of frustration and anger to individuals, it may also represent another way that identity — including beliefs about how they are perceived by others — is linked with motivation, and the desire to prove other people wrong Granfield, Due to the peer group she associated with, a challenging school environment and factors such as her low attendance, Kate felt that teachers had low expectations of her academic ability.
Though students like Kate discussed their awareness of themselves as members of a group that was less likely to do well as a source of both frustration and motivation, there are risks associated with being perceived as members of a devalued group. Thus, it is important to keep in mind that the students in this study represent a minority of those who were successful in attending university and low expectations and stereotypes may be internalised and negatively affect many of those who do not continue on into HE.
The majority of participants in this study described problems with attendance, often in relation to complex combinations of family, mental health including, for example: depression, and anxiety and social problems. Some individuals described preferring to work from home, due to disruption or social problems at their schools. There was always like gangs in our school waiting for people like my peers … and then I thought … Why? I could be doing this at home.
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I'd probably get more done and less disruption at home so I'd just started staying off a lot. Throughout her account, Kate explained how she felt attending school had been more detrimental to her learning than working from home.
Lisa, and other students with poor attendance, often felt that their difficult circumstances were not known or considered by others at their schools and influenced how they were treated. Without sensitivity to context, teachers may perceive students who are otherwise academically engaged as apathetic or educationally disengaged, and in turn this may affect how they treat these students Gottfried, ; Trowler, ; HEFCE, However, not all students who experienced significant problems and disruptions throughout their educational trajectories had problems with attendance.
For example, throughout his account, David describes his unsettled living conditions, experiencing various difficulties with his parents, but felt this did not impact on his attendance. In addition to not interfering with his attendance, David emphasises how he maintained focus on his goals despite adversity and periods of great difficulty. That was the morning of the French exam. I arrived late, because of everything and she was a mess … I did fine, I came out with a decent mark as well.
I don't know how I managed that.
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After this incident David and his younger siblings were taken into care. However, this account highlights how challenging incidents like this did not affect his attendance or attainment. The first time that I noticed there was universities was when I joined the university with the WP scheme.
Like Daniel, all students considered their participation in outreach programmes as important; however, the majority of them had already decided to go to university by the time they entered the programme. However, the knowledge students had of HE and the extent to which their decisions were guided by specific career goals varied considerably among them.
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David, for example, describes choosing subjects based on specific career goals from primary school. Additionally, most, but not all students describe being encouraged to go to university by at least one family member. Like, Melissa, five other students mentioned being the first in their families to attend university as a strong motivation. However, they also mention disadvantages of being the first in their families to attend HE, particularly in having little academic guidance at home.
Throughout her account, Kate justifies why she thinks people like her do not attend university, describing her family's views and conflicting advice as a significant barrier. However, this also represents a practical issue, as those going straight into paid employment can contribute to family expenses straightaway.
Triple disadvantage - out of sight, out of mind
The motivation to escape her unsettled living conditions that Lauren describes, was also a strong motivation for Lisa, and David in particular. This may reflect a utilitarian perception of achievement, which according to Gayles can represent a source of resilience, which allows students to thrive. These factors, the negative group stereotypes and low expectations students frequently described, also appeared to influence their engagement related behaviours in both positive and negative ways.
For example, though several individuals discussed being strongly motivated to prove others wrong and succeed, they also described low expectations as a significant barrier and source of frustration. If these complexities are not recognised, teachers may perceive students who are otherwise academically engaged as apathetic or disengaged, misjudge their academic potential and predict them lower grades than they achieve as a result. Future research is needed to explore this hypothesis, as this can represent an important barrier to other students from disadvantaged backgrounds and contribute to differences in participation among different types of university Boliver, It should be borne in mind that this study only included students who had been successfully admitted to university after taking part in outreach programmes targeted at disadvantaged students.
source url These issues and the complexities that surround the targeting of disadvantaged students require consideration to identify accurately WP cohorts and widen access to HE. While all participants valued taking part in WP activities, the current findings highlight the importance of providing students with information and guidance about HE and potential career options early so as not to restrict the opportunities available to them.
Ultimately, it is important that such evidence is used to inform practical interventions, to promote ongoing engagement, and widen participation to disadvantaged students in HE. Volume 43 , Issue 1. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. British Educational Research Journal. Original Article Open Access. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Education Secretary sets out plans to prevent the most vulnerable children missing out on school, raising visibility of those who have needed a social worker.
The schools admission code will be changed so that the most vulnerable children, such as those fleeing domestic abuse, can access a school place more quickly, Education Secretary Damian Hinds has announced today 17 June. New analysis lays bare the extent of disadvantage, with every classroom having three children who have come into contact with a social worker and 1.
These children suffer further as they often miss out on education, being three times more likely to be persistently absent from school and four times more likely to be permanently excluded. In a speech at Reform, the Education Secretary outlined the changing nature of disadvantage and a package of measures to support the most vulnerable in society, including new research on how to tackle persistent absence from school and exploring the expansion of advocates within education so that all children in need of a social worker, and not just those in care, are given the support they need.
Schools will also receive guidance on how to use the Pupil Premium most effectively, with evidence from the Education Endowment Foundation EEF showing the success of particular methods in improving educational outcomes. We understand children in care have very poor outcomes. Actually the truth is the outcomes for children in need of a social worker are almost as bad but there are five times as many of them. We also know the effects of this sustain. We need to improve the visibility of this group, both in schools and in the system as a whole.
We need to make sure in every case that information is passed on to a social worker when a child moves school. We also need to improve our knowledge of what works to support and help these children. While the attainment gap between disadvantaged pupils and their peers has narrowed by at least 9. Giving every young person the best start in life, whatever their background and wherever they come from, is a mission that unites teachers. By acknowledging the relationship between family income and educational success, the Pupil Premium cuts right to the heart of the reason most of us became educators.
The Pupil Premium is the key lever for closing the attainment gap and greater security of funding supports schools to plan ahead with confidence. We know that it has enabled headteachers to focus attention and make a difference for their most disadvantaged pupils. This is achieving results in schools across England, but there is undoubtedly more to do to. Crucially, we want to strengthen the ways the Premium can be spent to recruit, retain and develop great teachers for all children. The Pupil Premium provides welcome additional funding for schools, recognising those with some of the biggest challenges.
In order to be effective, the Pupil Premium must not become a cause of unnecessary work for teachers. To help us improve GOV. It will take only 2 minutes to fill in.